Effectsof microwave vacuum drying (MVD) on moisture migration, microstructure, and rehydration of sea cucumber were investigated in this paper. Vacuum condition avoided the exposure of sea cucumber to high temperature. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation results revealed that the peaks of three water components in sea cucumber shifted to short relaxation time during MVD process, and the peak area of major water component—immobilized water—decreased significantly due to water evaporation. Magnetic resonance imaging found that the water in the internal layer of sea cucumber body wall was first removed due to the internal heating of microwave, and then the water in the outer layer. Higher microwave power could promote the moisture transfer motion during drying process, and shorten the drying time. Porous microstructure was observed by Cryo scanning electronic microscope images in sea cucumber dried with microwave power of 200 and 250 W, which might be responsible for high values of rehydration ratio and water holding capacity. High microwave power caused the increase of amino acids content, but had no significant effect on the change of saponins content. In addition, excellent prediction models of moisture ratio have been developed by partial least squares regression analysis based on transverse relaxation data, which proved the feasibility of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance to monitor moisture changes of sea cucumber during MVD process.
One of the most important psychosocial issues related to the nursing profession is moral distress (MD), which has devastating effects on student performance as well as patient care. The current study was conducted to determine the frequency, severity, rate, and causes of MD in nursing students. Methods. During this cross-sectional study, 86 samples were last year undergraduate nursing students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, who were entered into the study by the census method. Data gathering instruments were personal information form, Moral Distress Scale-revised (MDS-r), and Moral Distress Thermometer (MDT). Results. The mean frequency, severity, and rate of MD, according to the MDS-r questionnaire, were 1.3 ± 0.7 out of 4, 1.8 ± 0.8 out of 4, and 3.3 ± 2.3 out of 16, respectively. The average MDT score was 2.6 ± 2.5 out of 10. The most common causes of MD were working in unsafe conditions (6.8 ± 6.0), observing impaired patients health servicing (5.4 ± 5.6), and the low quality of patient care (5.1 ± 4.6). There was a statistically significant relationship between the gender, work experience, and participation in the professional ethics workshop variables and mean MDS-total and MDT. Conclusion. The rate and mean severity of MD were reported at a moderate level. Also, the MDT average was reported at a mild to an uncomfortable level, and the overall MD was equal to moderate. Therefore, student administrators should take steps to eliminate or reduce the causes of MD. In this regard, the need for teaching preventive methods against MD to nursing students before their clinical courses seems crucial. Also, students with MD must be referred to the psychiatric/psychologist.